BN works within a nhmrc Centre for Research Excellence (APP1041020) and code reduc santediscount holds an nhmrc Program Grant (APP1052555).
The promotion of salt reduction as a best buyan intervention that is not only cost-effective but also affordable, feasible and culturally acceptable to implement in any resource setting 1 makes it a particularly compelling proposal for lower income settings.
The two studies taken together will add considerably to the body of evidence on the effectiveness and characteristics of national salt reduction programs.
Therefore salt reduction efforts have been focused on improving peoples understanding of salt and health through public education and consumer awareness campaigns.
A range of resources have been made available 22,.Jennifer McCrea-Logie and Sheila Penney from the Public Health Agency of Canada provided a very useful initial database which informed this location vacances promotion france work.Within this context we sought to systematically document existing national salt reduction strategies and provide an overview of initiatives in place to reduce population salt intake in line with the new global target.Changes in the diet and food environment associated with modernization during this period, such as refrigeration and advancements in transport has led to a reduction in preservation and pickled food consumption, which is more likely to contribute to the reduction in salt intakes.Our results also highlight less than half of the programs are implemented in lmics.South Africa and Argentina have led with the development of much more extensive schemes 27,.However, in many cases, the questionnaire respondent acknowledged consulting other relevant people therefore initiatives are not likely to have been overlooked.Research currently underway to look at the potential use of salt substitutes in China 46 is likely to provide a more viable approach to salt reduction in China, as well as being more effective in countries where the main source of sodium in the diet.All but one of the programs reporting an impact to date are voluntary, however this is likely due to the fact that most legislative approaches to salt reduction are relatively new and there has been insufficient time to measure an impact.The primary objective of this study was to provide a comprehensive overview of reported activity.The two countries which did not prioritise engagement with the food industry were Japan and China, where processed foods are not the major source of sodium in the diet.JW is Director of the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre on Population Salt Reduction at the George Institute for Global Health.
The significant increase in number of national salt reduction strategies and countries reporting an impact in relation to one or more outcome measures represents some progress towards the global salt target.
Countries reporting an impact Whilst 29 countries have reported an impact in relation to one or more of the outcome measurements, the different monitoring approaches means that the strength of the evidence varies.
Competing interests: All authors have completed the icmje uniform disclosure form and declare: BN reports non-financial support from Nu-Tek Salt Australia, grants from Australian Food and Grocery Council, grants from World Health Organization outside the submitted work; BN is Chair of the Australian Division.
Conclusion Population salt reduction is considered as a best buy intervention for the prevention of NCDs 1 and this review exemplifies that countries of all regions and income levels are able to implement such programs.Likewise the tripling of activity in the WHO Western Pacific Region reflects concerted WHO efforts.Questionnaires were sent to countries identified as having salt reduction initiatives and/or a country salt reduction contact person through a literature search and regional WHO representatives and experts.In 2011, the United Nations (UN) General Assembly convened a High-Level Meeting to address the Prevention and Control of NCDs worldwide.However the scope of some existing salt reduction initiatives need expanding and more robust monitoring is required to ensure strategies are having optimal impact.Since the last review, a series of recent research reports have provided further support for salt reduction 3, 6 9 and while several widely critiqued observational analyses have contested the nature of the association between salt and vascular outcomes the totality of the evidence supports.